IVF - In-Vitro Fertilisation
If the sperm sample is suitable for IVF, a concentration of the sperm will be mixed with the eggs and left to fertilise overnight in culture conditions. The concentration used depends on sperm count, motility, morphology and other relevant factors.
ICSI - Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection
Sperm samples not suitable for IVF may require ICSI. This method involves injecting a single sperm directly into the egg, bypassing many of the egg's natural barriers. ICSI is always used for surgically retrieved sperm.